Friday, November 9, 2018

Armistice Day in Schenectady


Today marks the 100th anniversary of the very first Armistice Day parade in Schenectady. Armistice Day was originally a commemoration of the ceasefire on the Western Front of World War I. The act that made Armistice Day a national holiday was approved on May 13, 1938. It stated that November 11 was to be  "dedicated to the cause of world peace and to be hereafter celebrated and known as Armistice Day." In 1954, after two wars that the United States were involved in, Armistice Day was changed to Veteran's Day to honor American veterans of all wars. Armistice Day is scarcely remembered today, but the relief and joy Schenectadians felt when the armistice was announced should not be forgotten.

The Armistice Day Parade on Dock Street. Courtesy of the Grems-Doolittle Library & Archives.
Schenectady was alight with activity starting with the Schenectady Gazette's announcement that the armistice was signed on November 11, 1918 at 5:00 am in Paris (2:50 am EST), stating that the end of hostilities would occur at 11:00 am (6:00 am EST). The celebrations were to began early in the morning and would end up going through midnight. With a population nearing 90,000 people, the Armistice Day celebration was the biggest the city had ever seen. An impromptu parade began at 3:30 am when a young man collected a group of people and started the parade. This group snowballed and soon enough, hundreds of people joined in on the festivities. The Newsboy Association's bugle, fife, and drum corps. kept the marchers in line. As the group marched along the canal down Dock Street, they decided to make a stop at General Electric to try and entice some GE workers into joining. Their plan worked, and the group grew even larger. By 9:00, the group was so large that little progress could be made down the streets.

This 1916 photo shows the members of the Schenectady Newsboys' Association Fife and Drum Corps. The Fife and Drum Corps was first organized in April 1916 with 35 boys from the Newsboys' Association. By the following year, the group had grown to 58. During World War I, the Schenectady Newsboys' Association Fife and Drums Corps marched in uniform in patriotic and military parades. Image from the Larry Hart Collection. 
 Small groups would make their way downtown as well. Children grabbed pots, pans, whistles, and anything they could make noise while older teens whitened their faces with feather dusters and talcum powder. All sorts of vehicles were enlisted into the parade and groups of Union students were seen driving an ash collectors truck. The Gazette wrote about a young boy that they dubbed "The modern Paul Revere." This young boy rode a horse through the streets of downtown blowing a bugle and yelling at people to wake up.

Yet another parade was formed in the afternoon. This parade was just as wild and raucous as the early morning parades, although this one was slightly more organized according to the Gazette. The paraders marched through dinner time and those too exhausted to march stood to the side to anxiously wait for the troops to arrive. The Gazette commented upon "the new position of women acquired during the war" as the women of the Schenectady Motor Corps. arrived "khaki-clad with bright brown leather belts and straps and military caps places at just the right angle."

Merrymakers celebrating in the streets of Schenectady. Courtesy of the Grems-Doolittle Library & Archives.
Shortly after the Schenectady motor corps. passed, the Schenectady County soldiers of World War I marched down State Street. They stood "straight and staunch" and the first to arrive were the warehouse corps, then the New York State Guard. The Army Depot also brought its trucks and ambulances down State Street to show off. The greatest applause was held for the black troops as they marched together without a break in their lines. Next in line were the Red Cross nurses to which the crowd yelled "You've done your share and we're proud of you." Other notable members of the parade was Major John E. McKerracher. McKerracher was in charge of the warehouses in South Schenectady/Rotterdam and was responsible for housing and moving troops as well as transporting equipment. 

The celebrations weren't just for early risers though and a massive nighttime parade formed around 8:00 pm. Marchers organized at Jay and Union and were led over to Washington Ave, back up State, up Albany Street to Hulett and finally disbanding at Nott Terrace. This parade included many bands, including the inexhaustible newsboys' association who were some of the first marchers of the day. Thirteen different military units joined the parade as well as the police, firemen, and just about every fraternal and ethnic organization in the area. Other features of the parade included many large American flags, a poster carried by the Jewish organization which read "Jewish Flag Recognized by the Allies", the Kaiser's coffin which read "The Kaiser is dead," and an armor clad Schenectadian with a sign that read "To Hell With The Kaiser."

The parade marching down State Street in 1918. Courtesy of the Grems-Doolittle Library & Archives. 
The festivities carried on with only only a few cases of "misguided energy." Throughout the day, people placed "torpedoes" on the trolley tracks that would explode when the trolley car ran over them. A piece of steel struck a spectator waiting by the side of State Street, causing a large gash in her cheek. More mischievous members of the crowd found pleasure in throwing talcum powder and other powdery substances in the faces of spectators. The Gazette also expressed displeasure at the late-night intoxicated crowds who contributed to much of the bad behavior. Despite this mischief, the police reported that there were no more arrests than on an average day and most of the work of Schenectady's police force consisted of confiscating talcum powder.

The all-day armistice parade was a release from the stress caused by four years of worldwide uncertainty and fear from the largest war up until that point. As the war went on, neutrality became more and more difficult to maintain and many men and women from Schenectady County joined to help with the war efforts. World War I was a war unlike any other before it, but unfortunately it was not "the war to end all wars." The sentiment expressed by the Schenectady Gazette that "such a day only comes once in the history of a nation" proved to be false as many of the people who celebrated Armistice Day in 1918 would still be alive during V-E Day just 27 years later. 

Tuesday, October 16, 2018

The Pastor's Ledger

How would a pastor in the 19th century keep track of, well, everything a 19th century pastor has to keep track of? I'm sure each pastor had their own way of organizing hymns, psalms, sermons, baptisms and marriages, but Herbert B. Roberts used The Pastor's Ledger, A Private Record Book For The Pastor's Study, Arranged Upon A Convenient And Original Plan by F.A. Blackmer, With The Aid of Many Pastors. For The Recording Of All Pastorial Labor,  Also A Church Directory. This ledger was published by Bardwell, Blackmer, & Co. in 1889 and sold for $2.25. Herbert B. Roberts served as pastor for the Scotia First Reformed Church from 1901 to 1923, before that he was the pastor at the Berne Reformed Church. His ledger documents much of his time at Berne.

The ledger was arranged into six different sections, sermons, prayer meetings, baptisms, church accessions, marriages, and funerals. It also has a useful church directory that lists church members along with their address, when and for what reason they saw the pastor, age (usually confession or a certificate) and remarks which often state when the parish member died. In Herbert B. Robert's ledger, he crosses out the address and uses the space for the maiden name of female parishioners which is potentially more useful than address. Images of the ledger can be seen below.

The title page of The Pastor's Ledger

Pastor Roberts' sermons during his first few months at Scotia Reformed.

The pages listing funerals has information on the cause of death, where the funeral took place as well as where the deceased was buried making it a useful genealogy resource.

Part of the pastor's church directory from his time at Berne.

Tuesday, September 25, 2018

A Historian and His Dogs

The front of the Walton's house at 26 Front Street.
Courtesy of the Grems-Doolittle Photo Collection.
In the July 1925 issue of the The Quarterly Journal of the New York State Historical Association Alonzo Paige Walton  was described as having "one of the most interesting collections of historical resources in the state." His collection included newspapers, clippings files, broadsides, and two letters from Sir William Johnson. Mr. Walton was known for his penchant for history and especially liked houses in the Stockade District of Schenectady. The Stockade was colloquially known as "Waltonville" due to his ownership of many of the houses in the neighborhood. The Waltons owned and renovated the historic Christopher Yates house on 26 Front Street. Mr. Walton was also involved in the Schenectady County Historical Society where he served as president from 1915-1916 and was a life member. Parts of his collection were donated to the Schenectady County Historical Society after he died in 1937. In addition to his love of history, Alonzo Paige Walton also had a fondness for Old English Sheepdogs.

Alonzo Paige Walton Jr. staring intently at one of his dogs. Courtesy of the Grems-Doolittle Library Photo Collection. 

Ramsrock Defender (left) and Mistress Merrie O'Merriedip (right) were photographed at the White Studio of Schenectady.
Courtesy of the Grems-Doolittle Library Photo Collection. 
Alonzo passed his love of history and Old English Sheepdogs down to his son Alonzo Paige Walton Jr. Alonzo Jr. and his wife Ettie owned several exceptionally cute Old English Sheepdogs and entered them in dog shows throughout the state. Ettie was voted to be the president of the New England Old Sheepdog club in 1943 and they were the heads of the Wildwood Kennel Club which was located in Saratoga Springs. We are lucky enough to have a few photos of the Walton's sheepdogs, Mistress Merrie O'Merriedip and Ramsrock Defender.


More shots of the Walton's sheepdogs. Courtesy of the Grems-Doolittle Library Photo Collection. 
Mistress Merrie even had a rival in her brother Master Pantaloons who was owned by a family from Great Barrington, MA. They went up against each other in a 1941 dog show at the Wildwood Kennel Club but unfortunately for Mistress Merrie, she was defeated by her brother. Despite this defeat, she would have been proud of Master Pantaloons as he reached the finals of the working breed and eventually won best in show by beating a "snappy, well-conditioned boxer." Mistress Merrie, Ramsrock Defender, as well as the Walton's other sheepdogs would go on to win various competitions throughout the state.

Monday, September 17, 2018

The Great Glenville Washout of 1885

"The Bursting of a Terrific Storm Cloud" was the byline of an article in the local newspaper The Evening Star and Times. This article was referring to an awful storm in Schenectady County that had laid waste to farm land, roads, and railways. on August 12, 1885. The town of Glenville was hit the hardest as a small, shallow tributary of the Mohawk River named the Arendt Mabee's Kill or Walton's Creek began to fill with "an inestimable" amount of water and flowed "with the fury of a cataract, sweeping away monster culverts and bridges, and huge boulders." These quotes were taken from the same article.

Some of the greatest and most costly damage was done to a New York Central Railroad culvert that passed over Arendt's Kill. This kill was normally a quiet creek but the sudden rainfall changed it into a rushing river. As the rain fell, the water of the Arendt's Kill continually rose until it reached the tracks. A freight train passed over the tracks just before the torrential water and debris crashed against the culvert and undermined the footings. The rocks and supports of the culvert were swept several hundred feet away leaving the train tracks to dangle with nothing supporting them.
This print shows the aftermath of the flood of 1885. You can see the dangling tracks in the background as well as the planks that were set up for passengers to cross the creek. This print was featured in Harpers Weekly. Courtesy of the Grems-Doolittle Library Photo Collection.
The worst thing that could happen after the culvert washed away would be for a passenger train to come by but that's exactly what happened. A passenger express train was expected in Schenectady at 4:32 pm and it was getting close to the former culvert which was located about five miles away from Schenectady. A brakeman who worked on the freight train knew about the oncoming passenger train and managed to signal the conductor. The passenger train stopped just before the bridge and and the brakeman was able to avert an even larger tragedy.

All other bridges that crossed the Arendt's Kill were destroyed, as well as several other bridges and culverts in Glenville. Crops and farmland were also heavily hit by the storm and about $150,000 worth of oats, corn and other crops were destroyed. The storm only lasted a half hour, but caused lasting damage. The fields were swampy and crops were washed away, stones from culverts and bridges were washed hundreds of feet downstream, and there was a new channel cut through the riverside farm of a nearby farmer. Rail traffic didn't completely stop either and passenger trains would stop well before the damaged culvert and let their passengers out. The passengers would then climb down into the creek and cross over wooden boards where another train would pick them up on the other side.

Photo of the work crew building a temporary bridge over the kill. This photo shows the pile driver from Poughkeepsie as well as some young children under the bridge. Courtesy of the Grems-Doolittle Library Photo Collection.
The repair of the culvert occurred as soon as news of the washout reached Schenectady. Roadmaster Overbagh gathered 56 men to assess the damage, but could not take any action due to the rushing waters. They returned early in the morning and were able to start the repairs. A steam pile-driver and more workers were brought up from Poughkeepsie. The crew worked day and night to get the tracks up in working order and it only took them five days to do so. It was a temporary bridge, but good enough for a passenger train to test out. The work of the emergency crew held up and the anxious passengers made it to the other side unscathed. A new bridge was eventually completed to replace the temporary one. The storm and flooding would become the namesake of both the kill and the road that ran along side it. The kill would become Washout Creek and the road became Washout Road.

Image from the August 4, 1986 issue of the Daily Gazette showing the damage of the 1986 flood. Courtesy of the Grems-Doolittle Library.
This wasn't the last time Washout Creek) would flood. In August of 1986, just before the flood's 101st anniversary, a storm hit Glenville. This storm caused the water level to rise several feet above Washout Road and caused the dirt under the pavement to erode. It also caused some damage to the guard rail. Fortunately, the damage was much more limited than that of the previous flood.


Thursday, August 30, 2018

Rotterdam Sesquicentennial Parade

Rotterdam and Glenville have an almost 200 year old rivalry. This rivalry was based on which town was officially created first. Both towns broke off from Schenectady in 1820, but there is no official record as to the exact date. This rivalry was stoked during a match of tug of war over the Mohawk during the sesquicentennial (150 year) anniversary for both towns in 1970. Glenville won, but accusations of cheating have blemished their mighty feat of strength (read more about this match in a recent Gazette article by Stephen Williams: https://dailygazette.com/article/2018/05/21/glenville-and-rotterdam-to-tug-it-out).

While Rotterdam was left dripping and injured (2 Rotterdam residents were treated for rope burn and one for a broken wrist) we like to think that they had some other successes, such as their celebration of facial hair (read more in a previous blog post: http://gremsdoolittlelibrary.blogspot.com/2015/11/brothers-of-brush-and-sisters-of-belle.html) and their Sesquicentennial Parade).

The parade was assembled at Mohonasen High and went down a 2 mile stretch of Curry Road to Westcott Road and disassembled at the former Army Depot. The Gazette estimated that around 4,000 people lined up to participate in the parade, including bands, dancers, people on floats and others.  A wide variety of organizations throughout Schenectady County were represented such as the Rotterdam Blue Jays, Rotterdam Republican Club,  the Schenectady "Electric City" Chorus, General Electric, Freihofers, and more.

We recently received a donation of photos of the parade that show the parade in all it's glory with creative floats, sharp looking marching bands, and cool vintage cars. Check some of them out below:













The Rotterdam Republican Club won an award for "Most Beautiful Float".

Friday, July 27, 2018

The Same Schenectady Street Scene Over Time

At the Grems-Doolittle Library we probably have more historic photos of State Street than any other street in Schenectady. This makes sense as State is Schenectady's main street and commercial hub and has been for quite a while. As such, there are a number of advertisements that have popped up on buildings over the years and it seems that one building in particular that would get plastered with ads for local businesses. 322 State Street housed several businesses over the years including the Boston One Price Clothing House, Evelyn Dress Shop, German newspaper the Deutsche Journal, the Schenectady Business College and various other businesses. This building is right by the train tracks, making it a perfect space to advertise. We've chosen some photos that show just how this area changed over the years. Some of these are undated, but a good way to get an approximate date is that if there is no railroad bridge over state, then it was taken prior to 1906.

Looking down State Street from the railroad crossing in 1888. This may be the earliest view of this corner that we have. 

Schenectady celebrated Washington's birthday with a big parade in 1892. 


This photo is from the mid-1890s.
This damaged photo from a glass plate negative also shows an advertisement for the Charleroi Plate Glass Company on a handcar. 

 A busy street scene taken on State Street from the Canal Bridge, 1910
One big change that occurred in 1906 was raising the grade of the railroad tracks. This was a notoriously deadly intersection and building the rail bridge greatly increased safety in the city. 

It's a bit difficult to read, but we think the street says "Stop, Let's Go Smilin' Thru Schenectady." This may have been referring to a play called "Smilin Thru" which was playing at the Hudson Theater in 1927. 
A 1966 view from the opposite side shows an ad for the Gazette.

A bit of a later view from 1977 and it's very difficult to see what they're advertising on 322 State. 

Looking down State in 1984. Zooming in, we can see that the ad on 324 State is the same as it was in 1977 for Nelson's Slenderizing Fashions.
Although there aren't quite as many ads, 324 still had an ad on it in August, 2017. Courtesy of Google Maps.
For more photos from our collection, check out our New York Heritage page at https://nyheritage.org/contributors/schenectady-county-historical-society.

Thursday, July 12, 2018

The Mabee Farm's Great Fires - Revealed in Documents and by Trowel

This post was written by SCHS and Mabee Farm Archaeologist Ronald F. Kingsley.

Since the settlement by Europeans in New Netherlands in the 17th century, great fires have occurred in the Dutch village of Schenectady. It was burned in 1690 by a raiding party of French and Indians from Canada with the physical loss of buildings and lives, and again in 1819 when a fire burned a large section of the village between the Binnekill and Church Street (1). Even the Mabee Farm, only eight miles west of the village, has had its share of tragic fires over its more than three hundred year history. This article addresses the story of two known barnyard fires at the Farm.

Historical Context


To visit the Mabee Farm today the visitor would sense a pastoral landscape with a Dutch architectural style stone farmhouse with attached buildings nestled among trees, open fields, and a scatter of outbuildings in the barnyard along the Mohawk River. The historic Farm is located in Rotterdam Junction. It is now owned and operated by the Schenectady County Historical Society (SCHS) after it being donated in January 1993 by the last family owner, George Franchere. Generations of Mabees resided at the Farm until the end of 19th century when tenants lived and farmed the land. The last resident was the caretaker and Town historian, Scott Haefner.

The property, situated on the Third Flat or Woestyne (Wilderness), was acquired from three Mohawk representatives by the Dutch on 28 May 1670 in the presence of interpreters Robert Sanders, Jacques Cornelius [Van Slyck], and a schout (sheriff) J.G.V. Marcken. (2) In 1680 Governor Andros designated it a Patent and gave the land to Daniel Janse Van Antwerpen, for his service. He was an early resident of Schenectady and formerly from Beverwyck (today, Albany). On 22 January 1706 Daniel Johnson [Daniel Janse Van Anterpen], an English name among others associated with him, conveyed the western section of the property containing 63 acres and 79 rods to Jan Pieterse Mebie, then a resident of the village. (3) Over the centuries the property became a productive working farm. Cows and other domesticated animals along with a variety of agricultural products (grains, fruits, vegetables), poultry, and broom corn were raised for sale in the marketplace. (4)

Recollections Of Times Past for the Present

A single photo in the SCHS’s photographic collection, taken in latter part of the 19th century (circa 1880), furnishes us with a rare glimpse of the barnyard of the Farm. The outbuildings (a carriage house, shed, Dutch style barn, and English style barn) in the barnyard vary in size and orientation. Nearby the buildings dairy cows graze peacefully. (5)



While these outbuildings are no longer visible on the landscape, an exact positioning and size of two buried stone foundations were discovered in August 2015. A summer drought created a cover of yellow grass over their buried stone foundations. Members of our SCHS/Mabee Farm’s Archaeological Services Program (ASP) team and some staff of the Farm were able to witness this event. The larger of the two outlines (60’x35’) was just north of the presently situated English carriage barn/restroom. The structure was moved and repaired in 2000 from the former Bradt Farm which was the adjacent property on the west. It is southwest of and nearby the reconstructed ca. 1760 Dutch style Nilson Barn from Johnstown. The ASP team measured and recorded the position on a large sheet of graph paper which provides the Farm an archaeological record. The general position was familiar to our team. This location had been found covered with the charred debris of a barn fire, believed to have occurred sometime in the 1970s.

Hartgen Associates and students and staff from the Community Archaeology Program-Schenectady County Community College (CAP-SCCC) had shovel tested various locations in the charred remains and adjacent areas from 1998 to 2003 in preparation for determining an apprropriate location for the reconstruction of the Nilson Barn and other buildings. As part of the Hartgen 1998-99 survey, staff had dug a small trench (TU-1) across an exposed section located on the north side of the former stone foundation. They determined that the foundation had served two barns from different eras, one barn built upon the other.

A second outline of a buried barn foundation (30’x25’) was exposed, that of the former Carriage Barn, 36 feet to the west of the buried burned Dutch style barn foundation. Both of these buildings appear on Chiamulera’s interpretative landscape drawing of the mid 19th century (1823-1885) farm. A subsurface ground survey was conducted in preparation for the location of the former Bradt’s Carriage Barn and now with a restroom currently in the barnyard. Also the study revealed a portion of a buried foundation of an English style barn to the southeast of the Dutch style barn and east of the proposed Carriage Barn, all seen in the photo above and also depicted in Chiamulera’s drawing. (6)

The 19th Century Yard Fire Revealed

On December 6, 1883 The Schenectady Reflector reported that a great fire had occurred on November 21, destroying the outbuildings of the Mabee farm with a loss of $2,000. According to resident, Jacob S. Mabee, the buildings contained crops. (7) The loss was also reported in the Troy Daily Times on November 30 as being $9,000. (6) Family records now held in the SCHS archives (M-INS-2) revealed that they had insurance but only a portion of the loss was covered by a payment of $1,600. A copy of the insurance policy (No. 1178), purchased with the Agricultural Insurance Company of Watertown, New York, showed that it had been issued on March 26, 1873. The policy identified coverage for a dwelling house and attachments, a brick house, and three barns, one identified as a carriage house. The former company’s office building still stands in Watertown. Personal communication in May 2016 with the Jefferson County Historical Society in May revealed that only recently that the firm’s business records had been donated to the society.

A much more detailed description of November 1883 fire appears in the Schenectady Daily Union. The reporter provides his readers a detailed story of an extensive fire, a possible cause, losses, and the kind and a successful response made by Italian laborers living in the vicinity to save the house by use of what appears to have been a bucket brigade which transported water from the river to the terrace above to dose the embers. (8)

Sometime before 1886, the Mabees built another barn on the stone foundation of the former barn. A property survey of 1886 by William Dorn shows a single building at the same location as a former barn. Other outbuildings were likely constructed to support the activities of the farm in the barnyard, but Dorn’s survey in that year shows only a barn. (9)


A Twentieth Century Barn Fire

The second great fire occurred 87 years later on the evening of October 10, 1970. An article in the Schenectady Gazette on October 12 provides information about the circumstances of the fire, suggesting possible arson. There is no mention of insurance in the newspaper account nor could a record be found among family papers. (10)


During the years following the fire and the discontinuation of agriculture at the farm, the barnyard became overgrown with trees and brush, east of the former white picket fence that had extended north and south between the boundary of the farmhouse yard and barnyard. Trees with extensive roots and brush were gradually removed starting in 1996 in anticipation of proposed reconstruction of a Dutch style barn in the barnyard. The task exposed the extent of the 1970 barn fire. Debris extended from the remnants of the stone foundation to the embankment overlooking the river.

From 1998 to 2003 the site of the burned barn location and an area adjacent and north were periodically shovel tested for buried evidence in preparation for the reconstruction of the Dutch style Nilson Barn from Johnstown. Staff from Hartgen Associates, Inc. and members of the Community Archaeology Program-Schenectady County Community College (CAP-SCCC) worked together to investigate this section of the barnyard. A wide variety of artifacts, including pottery, farming equipment, auto parts, tools, glass, and a portion of a melted weather vane (perhaps which once was mounted on the roof), were recovered confirming newspaper accounts of the former barns. (11) The surface of the site of the burned barns was covered with a protective soil fabric and covered by topsoil in 2010 to preserve the site for possible future study. (12) Since the construction of the Nilson barn other outbuildings have been added to the barnyard. Today with the Franchere Educational Center and all the buildings at the Farm constitute a public presentation by the historical society of an 18th -19th century agricultural teaching/learning educational setting and resource for the community and New York State.

Undoubtedly there have been other fires or close calls unknown to us today, often caused by lightning or sparks from a fireplace or stove upon a vulnerable surface. Their evidence may be uncovered in the future.

Looking Ahead from the Present

However, people of resiliency regroup and move on, often with different objectives but based on values they hold. The historic landscape changes, each reflecting opportunities taken with available resources. Today the barnyard offers the visitor a sense of order and purpose but formed by many events maybe never to be known. While documents are helpful to understanding the recorded past, archaeology continues to provide researchers with unwritten and sometimes unknown evidence that will continue to enhance knowledge of the past, dispel legends and reveal evidence of the lifeways along the Mohawk.

Acknowledgements

I would like to acknowledge and thank the following: Laurel Conrad, CAP graduate, Norm Aldrich and Chris Dorando, ASP volunteers; Mike Maloney librarian, Schenectady County Historical Society; Bob Sullivan, librarian, Schenectady County Public Library; Cynthia Seacord, Efner History Center; the Rotterdam Junction and Thomas Corners Volunteer Fire Departments; Jefferson County Historical Society; Bill Buell, reporter, Schenectady Gazette; Bill Whelen, local historian, Rotterdam Junction; Ron Rathford, local photographer; and students and staff of the Community Archaeology Program/Schenectady County Community College.

References

1. Thomas Burke. The Mohawk Frontier. A Dutch Community of Schenectady, New York, 1661-1710. Ithaca: Cornell University, 1991; Susan Staffa. Schenectady Genesis. How A Dutch Village Became an American City, Ca. 1661-1800. Vol. 1. The Colonial Crucible, Ca. 1661-1774. Fleischmanns, NY: Purple Mountain Press, 2004.; Victoria Bohm. The Most Destructive We Have Ever Witnessed”: Schenectady’s Great Fire of 1819. Grems-Doolittle Library Collection blog. July 24, 2014. SCHS.

2. Original document held by the SCHS.

3. Copy of deed (M-Deed-6) held by the SCHS.

4. Eva Chiamulera. The Van Antwerp-Mabee Farm, 1684-2000. Analysis and Proposal for Its Construction to a Museum Accompanied by a Historical Account of the Residents, Buildings, and Landscape of a Dutch-American Farm. A Thesis, Cornell University, Masters of Arts Degree, August 2000, pp. 129-133.

5. Barnyard, unknown photographer, in the photo/slide collection of the SCHS; the image appears in Chiamulera’s thesis, p. 143.

6. R. Kingsley, Field Investigation, mapping subsurface barns, Archaeological Notes, Mabee Farm File, ASP, 2015; Eva Chiamulera, masters thesis, The Mabee Farm , 1823-1885, p. 151.

7. Schenectady Reflector, “Rotterdam Rough-Notes”, Vol. XLIX, No. 4, p. 4; Troy Daily Times, a notice, "November 21. Buildings of Jacob Mabee at Rotterdam. Loss $9,000; insured."

8. Schenectady Daily Union, “Large Fire in Rotterdam”, Vol. XIX, No. 22, p.1.

9. Robert Dorn’s Survey map, 1886, Map Collection, SCHS library.

10. Schenectady Gazette. “Arson Suspected in Mabee Barn Blaze.” Vol. LXXVII, No. 323. October 12, 1970, p. 15.

11. R. Kingsley and L. Basa, Miscellaneous field notes, burned barn area, CAP, no report, 1998-2000; Hartgen Archaeological Associates, Inc., August 1999. Report. Archaeological Investigations. Barn Area, Mabee Farm, Town of Rotterdam, Schenectady County, NY.

12. R. Kingsley and L. Basa, recommendation to the Mabee Farm Committee. May 1, 2002, Mabee Farm Committee Meeting Notes.